How to Time Your Meals for Max Fat Loss- Thomas DeLauer…
Study – 2 Meals vs 6 Meals per Day:
I chose this study as historically many health experts advise people looking improve their weight management/health to divide up their daily meals into 6 smaller meals in order to reduce cravings, stimulate metabolism, etc., which has now been proven to be bad advice as this study proves:
Published in the journal Diabetologica, researchers found that eating 2 larger meals a day (breakfast and lunch) is more effective than 6 smaller meals in a reduced-energy regimen (for patients with type 2 diabetes)
The study compared the effect of six (A6 regimen) vs two meals a day, breakfast and lunch (B2 regimen), on body weight, hepatic fat content (HFC), insulin resistance and beta cell function.
Researchers assigned 54 patients with type 2 diabetes, both men and women, age 30–70 years, to follow two regimens of a hypoenergetic diet (below normal, caloric restriction), A6 and B2, each for 12 weeks. The diet in both regimens had the same macronutrient and energy content.
– Body weight decreased in both regimens, more for B2 (-5.07 lbs for A6 vs −8.1 lbs for B2)
– HFC decreased in response to both regimens, more for B2 (−0.03% for A6 vs −0.04% for B2)
– Fasting plasma glucose and C-peptide levels decreased in both regimens, more for B2
– Fasting plasma glucagon decreased with the B2 regimen, whereas it increased for the A6 regimen
– OGIS (oral glucose insulin sensitivity) increased in both regimens, more for B2 – No adverse events were observed for either regimen
Published in the Journal of Translational Medicine – Effects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained males
34 resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to a fasting [referred to time restricted feeding (TRF)] or normal diet group (ND)
TRF subjects consumed 100% of their energy needs in an 8-hour period of time each day, with their caloric intake divided into three meals consumed at 1pm, 4pm, and 8pm – the remaining 16 hours made up the fasting period. Subjects in the ND group consumed 100% of their energy needs divided into three meals consumed at 8am, 1pm, and 8pm. Groups were matched for kilocalories consumed and macronutrient distribution and subjects were tested before and after 8 weeks of the assigned diet
After 8 weeks, a significant decrease in fat mass was observed in the TRF group (−16% vs −2.8 % in ND group), while fat-free mass was maintained in both groups (+0.86 vs +0.64 %) – muscle area of the arm and thigh, and maximal strength were maintained in both groups. Blood glucose and insulin levels decreased significantly only in TRF – also in the TRF group, adiponectin increased, leptin decreased (but this was not significant when normalized for fat mass) No significant changes were detectable for lipids, except for a decrease of triglycerides in TRF group. Markers for inflammation (TNF-α and IL-1β) were lower in TRF at the conclusion of the study as compared to ND – note that IGF-1 & T levels did drop in the fasting group.
1) Meal frequency and timing in health and disease. (25, November). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4250148/
2) Eating two larger meals a day (breakfast and lunch) is more effective than six smaller meals in a reduced-energy regimen for patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised crossover study. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4079942/
3) Meal frequency and timing in health and disease. (25, November). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4250148/
4) Eating two larger meals a day (breakfast and lunch) is more effective than six smaller meals in a reduced-energy regimen for patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised crossover study. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4079942/